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All About Leishmaniasis, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment (Urdu-English)

Everything You Need to Know About Leishmaniasis, Its Key Causes, Main Symptoms, Diagnosis, Complications, Precautions & Treatment (English & Urdu)
In this post we shall share information about Leishmaniasis both in Urdu and English languages. You must get basic knowledge about all diseases, that’s why we try to publish Urdu and English articles on different diseases. Lets start reading  Leishmaniasis guide;



What is Leishmaniasis?
Leishmaniasis, also known as the Kala-azar, is a parasitic disease that causes a variety of symptoms in humans. The symptoms include muscle pain, headache, fatigue, skin lesions, fever, enlarged spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. It is caused by a parasite called Leishmania. It usually infects children between the ages of 5 and 15. The disease is spread through sandflies, which bite infected animals or people.



Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease which is caused by a protozoan parasite from the genus *Leishmania* that are transmitted to humans through the bites of female phlebotomine sandflies. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 12 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 1.5 million cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur annually, with approximately 90% of the cases occurring in six countries.


Leishmaniasis cases have been reported in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Sudan and South Sudan. The disease is a major health problem in Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen, and Zaire. The disease is also found in the United States where it is known as “Oroya fever” or “Barber’s itch”.



Key Symptoms of Leishmaniasis

The symptoms of leishmaniasis are not specific. The most common symptom is an enlargement of the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. Other symptoms include fever, weight loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, oedema, weakness and fatigue. A minority of patients may have no symptoms or present with a mild form of disease.



Main Causes of Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa from the genus *Leishmania* (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). It is transmitted by the bite of female phlebotomine sand fly vectors. The disease is endemic in 88 countries, and approximately 350 million people are at risk of infection worldwide. People who do not cover their body properly and live in unhealthy atmosphere or sleep in open places from autumn to spring may become the victim of this disease.



Precautions For Avoiding Leishmaniasis

There is no vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. The most effective form of treatment is the systemic anti-parasitic drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). Antimony can cause serious side effects. The following precautions should be observed during the treatment of leishmaniasis: Do not drink alcohol, which may interfere with the absorption of medication. The drug may cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.



How to Diagnose Leishmaniasis?

A. When the disease is suspected, blood sample is collected by venipuncture and sent for laboratory tests. The complete blood count with differential counts, serum chemistry panel, and urine analysis are done. In addition, skin lesion is examined under microscope to see whether parasites are present. B. If the patient has high fever, then a blood culture is done. This is followed by antibiotic treatment. C. If the patient has normal temperature, then a blood culture and urine culture are done to rule out other infections. The patient is treated with antibiotics if there is no response.


Complications of Leishmaniasis

Complications of leishmaniasis include pneumonia, hyperpigmentation, septicemia, cachexia, splenic rupture, tuberculosis, edema, disfigurement of nose, lip & palat and severe bleeding.



Treatment of Leishmaniasis

To diagnose leishmaniasis, a doctor will perform a physical examination and may order blood tests to check for antibodies against the Leishmania parasite. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the parasites and supportive care including medication to relieve symptoms. There is no cure for leishmaniasis, but it can be treated effectively with antibiotics if caught early on in the disease process. In homeopathic medical system Ars Alb, Chionathus & Ceanothus are good remedies for treatment of this disease.


Points To Be Remember About Leishmaniasis

Sandfly bites at open parts of the human body like hands, foot and mouth. Its not a contagious disease and do not spread through the social contact with its patient. Cover your body properly for avoiding sandfly bite. You should wear full sleeve shirts and socks. Never sleep in open space at night or use mosquito net. Spray insecticides in your home and office regularly. Keep your atmosphere clean as sandfly flourish in dirty places. Close all mouse holes in your home as sandflies lieve there. Dispose of the garbage as early as possible. In case of feeling the symptoms of Leishmaniasis in your body consult the qualified doctor as early as possible as in case of any delay this disease may leave stains on your body. Generally more cases of this disease are reported from September to March.



Summary & Conclusion
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the Leishmania parasite. The parasite is spread through the bite of an infected animal, such as a sandfly. The parasites enter the body through breaks in the skin, and can spread to different parts of the body.


To diagnose leishmaniasis, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. They may also perform a blood test to look for parasites. If you are diagnosed with leishmaniasis, you will need treatment to cure the infection.


If you think you may have leishmaniasis, see a doctor immediately. Be sure to follow the doctor’s instructions for treatment.


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All About Leishmaniasis, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment (Urdu-English)


All About Leishmaniasis, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment (Urdu-English)