Improve Your General Knowledge (GK) About Afghanistan & its Recent History
Welcome to our general knowledge based post on Afghanistan and Afghan history. This post of studysolutions.pk will improve your GK a lot about Afghanistan and its people. We have already published general knowledge related posts on India, USA, Pakistan and UK. Lot of such posts are in pipeline so visit us daily.
Kabul is the capital and the largest city of Afghanistan. Its a landlocked country. This country has defeated three super powers of different times like USA, USSR and British Empire. “Buzkashi” is the national game of this country. About 5 million citizens of Afghanistan are still leading the life of refugees in Pakistan and Iran. Afghanistan used to play the role of buffer state between Russia and British India. Afghan nation has been experiencing war since 1978.
1-Last King of Afghanistan
Zahir Shah was the last king of Afghanistan. He was born on 15 October 1914 and died on 23 July, 2007. He ruled the country from 8 November, 1933 to 17 July, 1973. He was buried in Kabul. He and hi descendants ruled the country from
Ahmad Shah Durrani was the founder of Afghanistan. This first Emir of the Durrani Empire ruled the Afghanistan from 1747 to 1772. Durr-i-Durrani was his title which means “Pearl of Pearls”. He also crushed the Maratha empire of Hindus in third battle of panipat.
Bacha Saqa king of Afghanistan was a bandit by profession. His real name was Habibullah Kalakani. He could rule the Afghanistan from 17 January, 1929 to 13 October, 1929 only. He was executed on 1 November, 1929 by his successor Muhammad Nadir Shah.
4-Soviet–Afghan War (1979-1989)
USSR invaded the Afghanistan in 1979. In-fact Soviet Union wanted to reach warm waters of Indian ocean and Iran or Pakistan were its next target, but Afghan Mujaheddin defeated the Soviet army in just 9 years with the help of USA, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
General Knowledge about Afghanistan & Afghan History-Top 20 Facts
5-King Amanullah Khan (1 June, 1892 to 25 April, 1960)
King Amanullah Khan tried to modernize his country just like Turkish President, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, but due to opposition of extremist elements of the society he failed to do so, rather civil war broke out in Afghanistan and King Amanullah Khan had to left both throne and country, resultantly Habibullāh Kalakāni took the control of country as king.
Pashtunwali is a tribal code of life in Pashtuns of Pakistan and Afghanistan. You may also call i the traditional lifestyle of Pashtuns. It is considered sacred among tribal people. They strictly follow its 12 principles. Asylum, hospitality, justice and revenge, bravery, loyalty.righteousness, faith, respect/pride/courage, protection of women, honor,chivalry and patriotism are key principles of Pashtunwali.
7-Pashtun Emperors of India
Pashtuns of Khilji, Lodi, Suri, Ghaznavids, Ghorids and Durrani kingdoms ruled over India too.
Loya Jirga is a symbol of Afghan based tribal democracy. Its a legal assembly of tribal elders. Traditionally it performs very important functions like selection of new ruler, enforcing new constitution and declaration of wars etc.
NDS stands for National Directorate of Security. Its the national secret agency of Afghanistan. Earlier it was called Khad.
10-Buddhas of Bamyan
Buddhas of Bamyan were two huge statues of Gautama Buddha carved in the mud hill of Bamyan Afghanistan. Taliban destroyed these statues in March 2001. Now Afghan government is trying to reconstruct this UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Hamid Karzai was the first President of Afghanistan after the Taliban rule. He ruled the Afghanistan from 22 December, 2001 to 29 September, 2014. In his book “Letter from Kabul” he expressed his view about the relations of Afghanistan and West.
Durand Line was created in 1893 through an agreement between British India and Afghanistan. Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman Khan signed on this agreement. Now its the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Its length is 2,640 KM.
13-Afghan Independence Day
Afghan nation celebrate the independence day on 19 August. In-fact Afghanistan gained the independence from Great Britain on 19 Aug, 1919 through Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919.
Self-proclaimed Saur revolution was a coup in nature by the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) on 27, 28 April 1978 against then President of Afghanistan Muhammad Daoud Khan. He majority of his family members were killed in the Presidential palace of Kabul. USSR was backing the Saur Revolution and PDPA. Nur Muhammad Taraki made the government after this so-called revolution.
15-Republic of Afghanistan
Afghanistan was declared republic by Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan in 1973. He abolished the monarchy and became the first President and Prime Minister of the country.
16-Afghan Civil War
Afghan civil war continued from 1989 to 1996. Mujahideen factions of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Jalalduddin Haqqani, Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, Ismail Khan, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Sibghatullah Mojaddedi and Burhanuddin Rabbani were the key players during this brutal Afghan civil war.
17-Rise & Fall of Taliban
Taliban defeated the all forces who were involved in Afghan civil war and captured the 90% area of country. They declared the Afghanistan an Islamic state (Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan). Mullah Omar was the founder and commander of Taliban. After 9/11 Mullah Omar refused to handover Osama Bin Laden to USA. NATO ended the Taliban rule through Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001.
Northern Alliance was a united front of Ahmad Shah Massoud and Abdul Rashid Dostum against Taliban. Taliban could not defeat Northern alliance till the end rather this alliance over throw the Mullah Omar with the help of NATO. Ahmad Shah Massoud was famous as lion of Panjshir as he defeated the Soviets several times in Panjshir Valley. He was assassinated on 9th Sep, 2001 by two Arab suicide bombers. Abdul Rashid Dostum was former communist general in Afghan national army during the rule of Najeeb Ullah, later on he became the vice President of country.
19-Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan
USSR left the Afghanistan on 15 February, 1989 under Geneva Accords which was signed on 14th April, 1988.
20-Present Situation in Afghanistan
At present Ashraf Ghani is the President of Afghanistan. NATO has failed to crush Taliban and now USA want to leave this country. It seems that soon Taliban will have their say in the government. Hopefully you will love to read our more post too in our general knowledge category.